Referencing: Acknowledging Your Information Sources

Referencing sounds simple, but may in fact, be quite complex.  There are a number of things that must be taken into consideration when you think about referencing.

The most fundamental consideration is the formatting protocol:  MLA or APA or Chicago.

Your decision on your formatting protocol then determines how to cite within the text: embedded (or parenthetic) citations as opposed to endnotes and/or footnotes (ibid and idem).

Every course, and every teacher, will have individual preferences.  Traditionally, difference disciplines have used specific formatting protocols.  These subject specific lines are blurring.  Always be sure to check with your teacher to understand course specific expectations.

The in-text referencing is only the first part of a full and proper attribution.  The in-text reference is the connection to your Works Consulted…  the total list of resources utilised throughout your Research and Inquiry process.


Etobicoke School of the Arts Library
From the ESA Library website…

TDSB Student Research Guide (Research Toolkit > Research Success @ Your Library)
Refer particularly to Stage 4: Transferring Learning, Pages 52 – 58, 69 – 82

Please feel free to use the reply form below to advise regarding any other resources you think should be added to this list.  Please also advise if any of the links breakdown (as is frequently the case with the internet!)

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